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With a population of 144,806 inhabitants, Tirgu Mures municipality is the capital of Mures County. Mures County is part of the “Center” Regional Development, together with Alba, Brasov, Covasna, Harghita and Sibiu. The “Center” Regional Development is located, as its name suggests, in central Romania, at approximately equal distances from it to the border crossing points.

The central geo-strategic positioning, with access to the European road E60, to the railway network, the existence of the transnational importance “TRANSILVANIA” airport, the positioning at the point of connection of future highways - Transilvania and Targu Mures- Iasi highway perspective, provides to Targu Mures Municipality important advantages for expressing the national and international vocation.

The area where the city is located is one with the weakest seismic activity nationally reported, being preferred for the location of some activities that require a high degree of protection against earthquakes.

 

The metropolitan area in Tîrgu Mureş

 

Tirgu Mures Municipality, together with its peripheral area, totalizes a population of about 215.000 inhabitants. The peripheral area comprises Ungheni city and 13 communes, laying over an area of ​​approximately 678.40 km ², bordering the Municipality of Tirgu Mures.

The interdependence between Tirgu Mures Municipality and the peripheral area is manifested primarily by the flow of labor, moving from rural to urban areas. In the recent years, however, due to the industrial activities development in the peripheral areas, there is a new way of the labor movement, namely from the municipality to the new peripheral areas of interest.

 

Short history

 

The today territory of the municipality has been since ancient times a “cradle” of human civilization, where were found numerous material evidences showing the oldness, the permanence and the continuity of historical life, from Neolithic times until the early feudal period (c. IX- XIV), when the first documentations about the locality are being known.

As the name says it, Tirgu Mures Municipality has developed as a fair, this feature being determined by the location of the city at the crossroads of some important trade routes. In the first half of the sixteenth century it outstands between the thriving cities of Transylvania as an important center of handicraft production and trade.

As a reminder of the tumultuous history of the city and its inhabitants struggle to defend, we have today in the center of the city the Medieval Fortress, which has evolved from the early fifteenth century fortifications, being strengthened during the voivode Stefan Batory (1492) and then rebuilt in its present form in the years 1603-1653.

In the late seventeenth century, Transylvania was under the domination of Austria, event that has generated, for a long period of time, important implications for economic and social life of the city of Tirgu Mures. During this period, it is developed the Transylvanian Baroque, when places of worship, buildings of common interest, noble houses, barracks inside the fortress, etc. are being built and they remained as a dowry of the architectural heritage of the central part of the city.

After 1850 starts a new period, of building the modern city, being facilitated primarily by the penetration of capitalist economy, by building more and more industrial units, especially those related to food industry, wood processing and construction materials. During this period we can refer to two mayors with a significant contribution to the development of the city: Bernady György - mayor between 1900-1912 and 1926-1929, and Emil Danda - mayor between 1922-1926 and 1934-1937, considered the initiators of the city’s modernization, for the contribution they had ​​in infrastructure development and utilities endowment, construction of representative buildings, of which the current headquarters of the City Hall.

Between 1918 and 1944 the city’s industrialization is experiencing a significant development, much stronger than in other cities of Romania, especially due to the use of methane gas as fuel and raw material for various industrial activities.

The regime’s change after the events from August 23, 1944 brings modifications in all life’s fields in Romania. Economic changes had occurred, especially after the nationalization from 11 June 1948, when the economy experienced, for a long period of time, a pass from a market economy to a centralized economy. The economy, the industry, the commerce were reorganized on a socialist basis. The new regime considered of utmost importance for Romania, the development of industry, in this regard being taken measures to ensure the increase of the old industrial capacities, along with the development of new industries. Thus, the main economic operators in 1990 were active in the following industrial sectors: chemical and medicine industry, mechanical engineering and electrical- technical equipments industry, construction and building materials industry, wood processing industry, textiles and leather clothing industry, food industry.

 

Economic activities

 

The city is currently in the process of transition from an economy based mainly on secondary sector activities to an economy based on services. The European and global changes in the early '90s and the economic reforms undertaken at national level have led to the fact that the economy, dominated by a traditionally industry (with manufacturing units in the fields of mechanical engineering, electrical products, chemicals, furniture, leather, textiles, glassware, porcelain and food), knew a sharp decline, once the centralized economic system broke-up and the large manufacturing units privatized and were restructured.

Compared to 1996 there was a decrease by 45% of employees in the industry due to the major restructuring that occurred in this sector. In manufacturing industry, the number of employees decreased almost by half. The downward trend in industry has occurred because of a significant growth of the share of tertiary sector represented by trade activities and services. The number of persons employed in commerce increased by 17%, and of those employed in services increased by 50%. In education there has been an increase of 6%, while health and social assistance increased with 31%. This last trend suggests the important role that health sector has in the social and economic life of the municipality.

While industry in general has entered a downward trend, the evolution of one sub-branches of chemical industry registered a significant growth. It is about the pharmaceutical products industry, which currently holds a 15.8% share of the city’s turnover business operators, being as well a sector with high labor productivity and with no generated losses. From the entire chemical and manufacturing industry, the largest company is SC Azomures SA - the leader of chemical fertilizer industry in Romania, which had a share of the export value of 82% in 2008 and about 60% in 2009.

Wood processing and exploitation industry is still one of the most representative industries, whose development is favored by the abundance of timber in Mures County. Moreover, Mures County outlines a cluster in the wood-processing sector, in which SC MOBEX SA - one of the largest companies of its kind in the country, based in Targu Mures - has assumed the role Company-leader.

Other prolific industries in the city are: food industry- especially the production of milk, dairy and cheese – textiles, ready- made clothes, leather and footwear industry, electrical, electronic and optical equipment industry, manufacturing nonmetallic mineral products industry, metal and engineering industry.

Production, transportation and distribution of electricity, heat and gas, catchment and distribution of water, sewage and waste management is an economic area, which, although it is represented by a small number of economic operators, makes 36% of the turnover and 39% of the table gross profit recorded by the operators in Tirgu Mures Municipality. These values are practically given by ​​E. ON Gas Distribution SA and E. ON Gaz Romania SA. As we know, gas extraction and distribution has always been an area of ​​expertise for the county's economy, given the significant resources of natural gas.

The highest share of exports belongs to the chemical and pharmaceutical products, clothing, furniture and wooden articles industry. The biggest exporter, Azomureş SA, delivers chemical fertilizers both to European markets and markets in Asia, Africa and South America, Turkey, Hungary, China, Italy, France, Algeria, Bulgaria, Brazil, Germany, Kenya. The furniture delivery is made ​​to the Community market (France, England, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria), but also to the markets of CIS countries. The medicine produced in Tirgu Mures by Gedeon Richter and Sandoz multinationals also have a wide international distribution.

 

The medical field

 

In the health care field, Tirgu Mures Municipality is a center of excellence not only in the county, but one recognized nationally and internationally by the quality and degree of specialization of medical care. The municipality has elite units equipped with performant devices and highly specialized medical staff, as follows: Mures County Clinical Emergency Hospital (unit of regional interest), Mobile Emergency Service for Resuscitation and Extrication (SMURD) Tirgu Mures - pre-hospital emergency care unit, which, at the time of its appearance, was a national pilot project, and the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases and Transplantation Tirgu Mures, a unit of excellence which is directly subordinate to the Ministry of Health.

In order to illustrate the influence exerted by the medical services of Tirgu Mures beyond the city and county’s boundaries, we can mention that more than 30% of the patients hospitalized in Mures County Clinical Emergency Hospital come from other counties.

 

University education and research

 

Tirgu Mures Municipality is a major academic center serving both traditional universities (University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Petru Maior University, Theatre University) and new private units (Dimitrie Cantemir University, Sapientia University). The five institutions offer a wide range of fields, such as: general and military medicine, pharmacy, dentistry and dental technology, medical assistance for emergency surgery,  theatrology, acting, directing, philology, psycho-pedagogy, law, finance and banks , accounting, mathematics, computer science, public administration, marketing, management, computers, electronics, precision mechanics technology, automotive, industrial design.

Tirgu Mures is famous beyond the country’s boundaries through the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, which attracts students both from the country and abroad, through the quality of education, the exceptional facilities, and by the fact that education is available in other languages ​​thanthe national one: Hungarian and English.
The research programs are carried out both at universities and in the hospital, and numerous research projects are conducted with partner institutions from abroad.

 

Tourist attraction

 

Tirgu Mures Municipality is a welcoming city, given the multicultural character generated by various cultures that live in symbiosis in the territory. The origin of the cultural diversity is an ancient one, being expressed in human plan by ethnic and religious groups. The predominant populations are the Romanians and the Hungarians. The opening to the West (and others) is also proven by the languages ​​spoken in the area, among which, along the national language, Hungarian, German language (there are schools that teach in Hungarian and German), English language.

Tirgu Mures Municipality is attractive in terms of landscape, being the residence of a county where nearly one third of its area is covered by forest. The city itself is surrounded by forests, from which, a significant part is situated in its administrative territory. Another defining natural element for Tirgu Mures is the Mures River, to which is connected the identity of the city itself, by the name it gives and by the crucial role it has played in shaping the current form of the city.

As noted above, the urban area of Tirgu Mures is the holder of a diverse architectural heritage, where the tourists can visit monuments dating from the medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, and in particularly the "Art Nouveau" period. These include the “Rose Square” urban complex which is considered a "emblem” of the city, being appropriated as such by the residents and visitors, the Medieval Fortress, the Theatre Square, the Palace of Culture, the City Hall’s " art nouveau”, Teleki-Bolyai Library, the Royal Plate, etc.

The city has a tradition in providing leisure services, two of them being cherished by the locals and tourists: “Muresul” Recreational Complex called "Weekend" - a place for beach and bath, the Corneşti Plateau where, within a rich forest, is arranged a modern playground, the Zoo - the second in the country as size, bike tracks and hiking trails for running and walking through the forest. In addition to the already mentioned recreational items, there is the Hippodrome for the equine tourism and the Romanian Aero-club providing optimal conditions for flights with lightweight devices (extreme sports).

If the visitor wants spa services or natural treatments, he has the possibility to choose between the hotel, the recreational and treatment complex called Apollo Welness Club in Sângiorgiu de Mureş and Lifestyle Herghelia Center situated in a special landscape, with its own base treatment, with a program that consists of an integrated medical treatment, with emphasis on the natural lifestyle and a scientific approach of the factors with major impact on health, both located in the suburban area of the city.

 

Interest events for tourists

 

In Tirgu Mures are annually organized a series of art events that have a strong effect of attraction and polarization of the tourist activity:

The International Festival „Constantin Silvestri";

  • The Festival „Tirgu Mures Musical Days";
  • Sacred Music Festival ;
  • Tirgu Mures Days, Wine and Beer Festivals;
  • The International Theatre- Image Festival;
  • Face-A-Face Festival;
  • „Credo"- The National Religious Literature Festival;
  • Romulus Guga" Poetry Contest-Festival;
  • The National Festival - „Cobra" epigram contest;
  • „Alternative"- The International Festival of Short Film
  • „Jocul din bătrâni" – folk festival at Tîrgu Mureş;
  • Artists’ exhibitions at the Palace of Culture Gallery, at “Nagy Imre” and “Kulcsar Bela” Gallery.
  • Festivals of folk art and crafts: fabrics, carpets, towels, tablecloths, rugs at Pănet, wicker works- baskets, small furniture, non-ferrous foundries- bells, chandeliers, religious objects, metal-plastic modelling, painted icons at Tirgu Mures.
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